The History of Zardozi | Article by Studio Covers

Understanding the Ancient Art of Zardozi

September 25, 2021

Understanding the Ancient Art of Zardozi - Studio Covers


Beauty is truth, truth beauty”.

-John Keats

Art is intrinsically useful, vital to humanity. We need poetry, we need melodies, and we certainly need the gratification of assiduously hand crafted embroideries - humble, but utterly dazzling. Sublime works of art on canvases of rich velvet and smooth satin, crafted with glistening gold leaves and incandescent silver strings that make intricate patterns. Embellished with precious stones and pristine pearls, this is the elegant art of Zardozi; the mark of royalty in ancient India.

Dhvaja on aqua fabric in Zardozi

Here’s a glimpse into the history of this ancient art.  

The etymology of this dulcet word dates back to its Persian origins: zar, meaning gold; and dozi meaning sew

One of the oldest forms of hand embroidery, Zardozi craftsmen have been weaving poetry on fabric for over 3000 years. Though it came to India during the age of the Rigveda, about 1500 BC, it only began to truly flourish under Akbar’s rule. However, there was a brief dip in its popularity during British rule and the rise of industrialization. It didn’t take too long for the handicraft to pick up again though, soon finding its way into every modern Indian home as a symbol of rich heritage and nobility. 

Kalabatun, as it was originally termed, takes inspiration - like all great art - from the infinite beauty of the natural world. It often incorporates patterns related to flora and fauna, as well as echoes of the night sky, including gleaming stars and crescent moons. 

A peek into what really goes into this elegant form of embroidery

The two dominant styles of Zardozi include Karchobi, which is characterised by dense, intricate stitches done on heavy velvets and satins, and Kamdani, which involves a slightly more delicate approach done on fabrics such as muslin and silk. The intricacy of this work gave the early Zardozi craftsmen the tag “‘gardeners of garments” in honour of the elaborate floral patterns they carved out with their humble tools. These patterns were embroidered using crochet needles, weaving gold and silver threads together. 

A close-up of the sacred Conch created in Zardozi

Of course there are alterations in the tools and materials used: pure gold and silver is replaced by combinations of the two known as dabkaa, gold or silver plated threads known as kasab, and other slightly less authentic uses of copper and brass. Similarly, metal stars and sequins have replaced the rare gems littering the motif patterns. While the use of non silver and gold material is heavily criticised, it’s made Zardozi way more accessible to the everyday Indian, as well as the global consumer. 

The process of embroidery, however, has remained more or less the same. The garment is secured over a frame known as the “adda”, which gives it tension and allows the artisan to draw over the material. The next step is to begin the actual embroidery- specifically, the applique method, involving fine, light and small stitches that give the embroidery the quality of finesse and luxury. It takes about 5-6 artisans to work on one 6 meter fabric of sari over the course of almost 3 days

Although it’s become a lot more accessible in today’s world, it still retains its badge of luxury. Zardozi is usually reserved for the more lavish occasions, like for bridal costumes in weddings. 

That’s not to say that the technique is reserved for garments: from very early on, the versatile Zardozi was used to decorate common household items, from wall hangings to handbags. Perhaps you’d like to peruse over our range of pillow covers ornate with the delicate signature of Zardozi work

The symbol Aum in Zardozi on linen

Zardozi today and it’s place in the world

The fascination with this glamorous craft has spread across the globe; Zardozi contributes to the domestic economy not only through the local markets, but its impressive export rates as well. This glitzy, sublime art has a rich historical context, contemporary socio-cultural relevance and besides that, immense economic value. A big chunk of the revenue that the art of Zardozi brings in is due to its ability to cater to a universal desire to see, touch, feel, own beauty and art. Especially handcrafted art; it just has that slightly more exclusive, special touch, doesn’t it? 

To behold and witness the product of such high craft, of 3 days of diligent labour, love and care. Of an artist's reproduction of the world’s beauty.  

And what if you can do all that, while simultaneously supporting the ingenious hands of India’s artisans that weave humble fabrics into works of such exquisite art? 

One word: Zardozi

Leave a comment

Also in The Studio Covers Blog

Kantha : The Story Behind The Stitch - Studio Covers
Kantha : The Story Behind The Stitch

April 19, 2023

For the longest time, historians and critics have mulled over old genre paintings, trying to peek desperately through the veil of time to unravel the world through the eyes of the greats. With a thirst that is perennially unquenched, we dig up tombs and scour cathedrals, but the search never ends.

View full article →

The Philosophy Behind The Studio Covers Diwali Collection - Studio Covers
The Philosophy Behind The Studio Covers Diwali Collection

October 21, 2022

At Studio Covers, we have always asked why before what. And that is probably also why we are choosing tradition and timelessness over trend. We are choosing motifs that are inspired by everyday India, the craftsmanship that defines our vibrant country and fabric that is quintessentially Indian. 

View full article →

How to Incorporate Cushions at Home During Autumn - Studio Covers
How to Incorporate Cushions at Home During Autumn

September 29, 2022

Fall is the season of warmth, comfort, pumkin spiced latters, and just embracing the idea of staying in with a book! We love Fall as does our Creative Partner Rukmini (Trumatter), who has penned down ways to incorporate cushions into your home this Fall like a dream.

View full article →